End Notes

1. “Approximately 80 percent of Americans would prefer to die at home,” “Where Do Americans Die?” Stanford University School of Medicine/Palliative Care (2016): https://palliative.stanford.edu/home-hospice-home-care-of-the-dying-patient/where-do-americans-die/.

2. “People live longer and better than at any other time in history,” Dr. Atul Gawande, Being Mortal: Medicine and What Matters in the End (Henry Holt 2014), p. 6.

3. Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, SUPPORT: The Study to Understand Prognosis and Preferences for Outcomes and Risks of Treatment (1995): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7474243.

4. “Only 47% of physicians knew when their patients preferred to avoid CPR; 46% of do-not-resuscitate (DNR) orders were written within 2 days of death; 38% of patients who died spent at least 10 days in an intensive care unit (ICU); and for 50% of conscious patients who died in the hospital, family members reported moderate to severe pain at least half the time,” Dr. Alfred Connors, “A Controlled Trial to Improve Care for Seriously Ill Hospitalized Patients ” JAMA (The Journal of the American Medical Association) (November 22, 1995): http://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/article-abstract/391724.

5. “Many or most physicians have had little exposure to hospice and palliative medicine in their undergraduate and graduate education,” Institute of Medicine, Dying in America (September 17, 2014): iom.nationalacademies.org, 4–7.

6. “The Liaison Committee on Medical Education now requires accredited U.S. and Canadian medical schools to teach end-of-life care,” Institute of Medicine, Dying in America (September 17, 2014): iom.nationalacademies.org, 4–5.

7. “California has made substantial progress in increasing access to specialty palliative care services,” Coalition for Compassionate Care of California and California HealthCare Foundation, Dying in California: A Status Report on End of Life Care (October 22, 2015): http://www.chcf.org/publications/2015/10/dying-calif-status-report, p. 3.

8. “In 2010, the national shortage in this specialty was estimated to be between 6,000 and 18,000 physicians,” Institute of Medicine, Dying in America (September 17, 2014): iom.nationalacademies.org, 4–3.

9. Jessica Nutik Zitter, MD, “In the Hospital, Resisting the Urge to Do More, ” The New York Times WELL blog, (April 14, 2016): http://jessicazitter.com/in-the-hospital-resisting-the-urge-to-do-more/.

10. “California is committed to improving end of life care,” Coalition for Compassionate Care of California and California HealthCare Foundation, Dying in California: A Status Report on End of Life Care (October 22, 2015): http://www.chcf.org/publications/2015/10/dying-calif-status-report, pp. 3 and 4.

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